A Mystic Land – Spiti Valley

After Tibet became a part of China, and Dalai Lama took shelter in the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, a big number of Tibetan immigrants followed (the number is still increasing everyday) and started living in the border areas, with Himachal Pradesh having the majority. Today, Himachal Pradesh looks just as much a part of Tibet as it is of India.

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The last stop on an old trade route to Tibet and at the junction of several trekking routes, Chitkul, in Himachal Pradesh is the last Indian town to Tibet. The only buildings you see in Chitkul are a handful of slate and wooden-plan rooftop houses, built in the traditional Himachali style architecture. Chitkul Fort, a beautiful but ancient building, made out of wood and stone, for example, is one among them. Location: Chitkul, Himachal Pradesh.

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The many ancient monasteries, other than the popular Kagyupa temple, moreover make Chitkul another religious town in Himachal Pradesh. But civilized by a 100% Tibetan community, it feels more like Tibet and less like India. Location: Chitkul Himachal Pradesh.

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The state of Himachal Pradesh is dotted with various holy sites, revered by people of many faiths. And among all, one of the most famous holy place is the Key Monastery in Lahaul and Spiti. Located on top of a hill at an altitude of 4,166 metres above sea level, close to the Spiti River, Key Monastry dates its foundation back in 11th century.Location: Key, Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh.

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Tibetan architecture contains Chinese and Indian influences but has many unique features brought about by its adaptation to the cold, generally arid, high-altitude climate of the Tibetan plateau. And a part of it, can be explored in Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh. Location: Tabo, Himachal Pradesh.

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Dubbed as ‘Dev Bhumi’, or the Land of Gods, Himachal Pradesh has a very rich mythological past too. And with people believing in their own local deity, they have their own way to practice spiritual practices. For example most of the temples, particularly around the popular Kullu Valley stay close for public, and only open during religious ceremonies. Location: Naggar, Himachal Pradesh.

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Jagadamb – Kille Raigad

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Raigad Fort

Raigad is a hill fort situated in the Mahad, Raigad district of Maharashtra, India. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj built this fort and made it his capital in 1674 when he was crowned as the King of a Maratha Kingdom which later developed into the Maratha Empire, eventually covering much of western and central India.

The fort rises 820 metres (2,700 ft) above the sea level and is located in the Sahyadri mountain range. There are approximately 1737 steps leading to the fort. The Raigad Ropeway, an aerial tramway exists to reach the top of the fort in 10 minutes. The fort was looted and destroyed by the British after it was captured in 1818.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj seized the fort in 1656, then known as the fort of Rairi from Chandrarrao More, a feudatory of the Sultan of Bijapur. Shivaji Maharaj renovated and expanded the fort of Rairi and renamed it as Raigad (King’s Fort). It became the capital of Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaja’s maratha kingdom.

The villages of Pachad and Raigadwadi are located at the base of the Raigad fort. These two villages were considered very important during the Maratha rule in Raigad. The actual climb to the top of the Raigad fort starts from Pachad. During Chhatrapati Shivaji’s rule, A cavalry of 10,000 was always kept on standby in Pachad village.

After capturing Rairi from Chandrarao More, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj also built another fort Lingana around 2 miles away from Raigad. The Lingana fort was used to keep prisoners.

Raigad 1896

In 1689, Zulfikhar Khan captured Raigad and Aurangzeb renamed it as Islamgad. In 1707, Siddi Fathekan captured the fort and held it until 1733.[3]

In 1765, The fort of Raigad along with Malwan in present Sindhudurg District, the southernmost district of Maharashtra, was the target of an armed expedition by the British East India Company, which considered it a pratical stronghold.[citation needed]

In 1818, the fort was bombarded and destroyed by cannons from the hill of Kalkai. And on 9 May 1818, as per the treaty, it was handed over to the British East India Company.

Gir National Park – The Majestic Home of the Royal King

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Gir National Park: The Majestic Home of the Royal King:

Besides Africa, Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only place in the world where you can spot lions roaming free in the wild. The real discovery channel of India is situated approximately 65 Kms South East of Junagarh District. The Government notified the large geographical extent of Sasan Gir as wildlife sanctuary on 18th September, 1965 in order to conserve the Asiatic Lion. It covers total area of 1412 square kilometers of which 258 Km forms the core area of the National Park. Indiscriminate hunting by the people of Junagarh led to their decrease in population drastically, while they were completely wiped out from the other parts of Asia. It was the kind effort of Nawabs of Junagarh who protected the queen royalty in his own private hunting grounds. Later in due course of time Department of Forest Officials came forward to protect the world’s most threatened species. From a population of approximately 20 lions in 1913, they have risen to a comfortable 523 according to 2015 census. There are 106 male, 201 female and 213 sub-adult lions in the wilderness of these four districts.

Subtle Glimpses of Major Attractions at Sasan Gir:

Animals:The entire forest area of the Gir National Park is dry and deciduous which provides best habitat for Asiatic Lions. As per the new statics of 2015, the entire Saurashtra Region is inhabited by 523 Lions and more than 300 Leopards. Apart from these two animals the park is a home to two different species of Deer. The Sambar is counted largest Indian Deer. The Gir forest is also known for the Chowsingha – the world’s only four horned antelope. The Jackal, striped Hyena and India Fox are some of the smaller carnivores found in Gir Forest.

Birds: The exotic flora of Gir National Park gives shelter to more than 200 species of birds and moreover the sanctuary has been declared an important bird area by the Indian Bird Conservation Network. Gir is also habitat of raptors like critically endangered white-backed and long-billed vultures.

Reptiles:Sasan Gir is blessed with more than 40 species of reptiles and amphibians. Kamleshwar – a large reservoir in the sanctuary is the best spot where Marsh Crocodile can be seen in large numbers. Park has even many species of snake including King Kobra, the Russell’s viper, Saw-scaled viper and the Krait.

Gir Interpretation Zone, Devaliya: Devaliya Safari Park is enclosed area of the Sanctuary that offers a good opportunity for visitors to experience a rustic beauty and wilderness of the area. The safari tour is conducted in a mini bus that takes visitors to another cross section of the Gir. Travelers can watch here a good variety of wildlife in just 20 to 30 minutes tour including Asiatic Lion.

How to Reach Gir National Park Gir: National Park attracts large number of tourists to witness the Asiatic lion, as this is the sole place all across the world where these creatures are presently found. Once extinct, numbers have been recovered owing to the conservation efforts. The Sanctuary is open for tourism from 16th October to 15th June every year.

Junagadh is perhaps the best approach to the park. The railway station in Junagadh receives trains from different cities like Ahmedabad and Rajkot and other major cities. Then, from here it takes approximately one and half hour to reach Sasan Gir National Park.

From Rajkot-On reaching Rajkot Railway Station or Airport you can take a cab or bus and to reach a Limda chowk. There are a number of privately operated that go to Junagadh at frequent intervals. Junagadh is nearly 105 Kms from the city Rajkot and it takes nearly 2 and a half to 3 hours to cover the distance.From this point you have two options. First one is either you take a bus from gate number 11or 12 to Sasan Gir or travel by taxi that is accessible bang opposite the taxi stand. The taxi will take nearly one and half an hour and will charge reasonably and will drop you to Sasan Gir.

From Somnath to Gir National Park: Road Distance or the driving distance from the Gir National Park to Somnath is approximately 50 Kms and it takes nearly 1 hour to cover this distance. GSRTC buses and quite a few private buses ply between both the cities and take you directly to Sasan Gir Forest.

From Diu To Sasan Gir Park: Diu airport is closest to the Gir National Park. From here you can hire that are present just outside the airport which will take you to Sasan Gir. Sasan Gir is nearly 110 kms airport of Diu and takes approximately 2 hours to cover this distance. If you have a late afternoon flight it is better to take a halt at Diu or can visit Somnath Temple which is nearly 80 kms from Diu and the road too is good except in little patches. It just takes an hour to reach Somnath from Diu. Next morning you can move on to Sasan Gir which is just 40 kms from here and just takes half an hour to cover this distance.Some other routes to reach Sasan Gir by road is from Keshod which also has an airport and is 45 kms, Veraval is 40 kms away, Junagadh is 55kms, Rajkot is 160Kms, Ahemedabad is 410Kms. The closeby railway stations are Sasan which is 40 Kms and Rajkot which is 160 Kms.

If you can’t afford a taxi there are frequent buses that are playing throughout the day. The park is easily accessible from the beautiful beaches of Diu which is about two hours drive don’t want to take a taxi, pubic buses run regularly to Sasan Gir from both places during the day. People prefer private buses as it conveniently drops them to the Guest houses you want to reach. So in this way they are more convenient than the buses. No prior booking is required as the buses are available on any part of the day. So, come and enjoy the beautiful flora and fauna of Sasan Gir National Park and take home some of the most treasured moments back home.

Take you where you want to go

TAKING-YOU-WHERE-YOU-WANT-TO-GO-1-1
NameLocation/place nameLocation/place nameLocation/place nameLink to Entry
Neeraj SinkarPench Tiger ReserveTadoba National ParkMumbai - Chennai - MunnarView Details
Abhishek BagweAnjarle/DapoliView Details
Pranav BhoirSelf Camping at DevkundHamppi , Gokarna, Snt Mary Islabd (Udappi)View Details
Naynesh PandyaCoastal karna take & kerelaView Details
Mayuresh ZeleAurangabadSightseeingCoorgView Details
Gefel philipsBhandardara let’s have it over night tent camping born fireView Details
Sushant KurhadeEast coast of indiaSpiti valleyView Details
Sunil DangeShirdiPurushwadiMSH4 - Coastal KonkanView Details
Neal AgarwalTurtukView Details
Shri KAMBLEAlibaugBhandardara damKonkan rideView Details
Mickey RajputMumbai,udaipur,ajmer,jaipur,haryana,punjab,amritsar,karta,gulmarg,srinagar,kargil,leg,then coming via manali or spiti.View Details
Challa SandeepAraku valley / visakhapatnamView Details
Neeraj SinkarLeh, Umling La, SpitiView Details
Shabarigiri JMahabaleshwar- sinhaga -station lavasha-lonavalaView Details
Shabarigiri JLadakhBhutanWaynadView Details
Neeraj SinkarGir ForestRann of KutchShegaonView Details
Jitendra VaidyaBhutanSolapur-Akkalkot-TuljapurView Details
Bhushan SakpalHydrabadView Details
Bhushan SakpalHumpiView Details
Shashank KulkarniMahalaxmi, Kolhapur. Shegano, Amaravati.Kolhapur.View Details
Mayuresh ZeleShirdi night rideView Details
Deepesh SinghHampi udipi gokarna dudhasagarView Details
Harshal SahastrabudheWai-SataraDapoliRani ki vaavView Details
NameLocation/place nameLocation/place nameLocation/place nameLink to Entry

Riders Raid 2017

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R!DERs RAID & Diwali Meet of R!Dians

Date : 18th October 2016 i.e. Wednesday
Time : 07:00 PM onwards
Assembly Location – Upvan Lake ( From here we all ride towards the venue)
Venue : Village Restaurant
Agenda
1. Grand Diwali Meet
2. Welcoming New R!Dians
3. Merchandise Distribution
4. Membership Facilitation
5. Dinner

Please confirm your availability for the Dinner by mentioning in above link

For any support or information contact any Management Team member on thier Phone.

Thank you.
Regards,
Royal Indian Devote’s
Club Management Team

Attendees are

Name
Rohan pawar Rohan pawar
Umesh Patel
Edward Crasto
Kiran Kumar Tupalli
Nelson Dsouza
Gokul Patel
Suyojit Gaikwad
Yogesh Shahane
Amit Salunke
Bhupesh Nehete
Mayuresh Zele
Shri Kamble
Mahesh Vishe
Abhijit Paradkar
Tejash Bhate
Neal Agarwal
Aji Gopalan
Akshay Patil
juzar kachwala
Abhishek Bagwe
Melvin D'souza
Beryl Thomas
Manju Poojari
Edwyne Diaz
Shashank Kulkarni
Name

Kaziranga National Park

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Kaziranga National Park (Assamese: কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, pronounced [kaziɹɔŋa ɹastɹijɔ udjan]) is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary, which hosts two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site.

According to the census held in March 2015, which was jointly conducted by the Forest Department of the Government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs, the rhino population in Kaziranga National Park is 2,401. It comprises 1,651 adult rhinos (663 male, 802 are females, 186 unsexed); 294 sub-adults (90 males, 114 females, 90 unsexed); 251 juveniles and 205 cubs. Kaziranga is home to the highest density of tigers among protected areasin the world, and was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006. The park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer.

Kaziranga is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for conservation of avifaunal species. When compared with other protected areas in India, Kaziranga has achieved notable success in wildlife conservation. Located on the edge of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, the park combines high species diversity and visibility.

Kaziranga is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, criss-crossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, and the park includes numerous small bodies of water. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books, songs, and documentaries. The park celebrated its centennial in 2005 after its establishment in 1905 as a reserve forest.

History

The history of Kaziranga as a protected area can be traced back to 1904, when Mary Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston, the wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, visited the area.[citation needed] After failing to see a single rhinoceros, for which the area was renowned, she persuaded her husband to take urgent measures to protect the dwindling species which he did by initiating planning for their protection. On 1 June 1905, the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest was created with an area of 232 km2 (90 sq mi).

Over the next three years, the park area was extended by 152 km2 (59 sq mi), to the banks of the Brahmaputra River.[6][not in citation given] In 1908, Kaziranga was designated a “Reserve Forest”. In 1916, it was redesignated the “Kaziranga Game Sanctuary” and remained so till 1938, when hunting was prohibited and visitors were permitted to enter the park.[citation needed]

The Kaziranga Game Sanctuary was renamed the “Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary” in 1950 by P. D. Stracey, the forest conservationist, in order to rid the name of hunting connotations.[citation needed] In 1954, the government of Assam passed the Assam (Rhinoceros) Bill, which imposed heavy penalties for rhinoceros poaching. Fourteen years later, in 1968, the state government passed the Assam National Park Act of 1968, declaring Kaziranga a designated national park.[citation needed] The 430 km2 (166 sq mi) park was given official status by the central government on 11 February 1974. In 1985, Kaziranga was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO for its unique natural environment.

Kaziranga has been the target of several natural and man-made calamities in recent decades. Floods caused by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra, leading to significant losses of animal life. Encroachment by people along the periphery has also led to a diminished forest cover and a loss of habitat. An ongoing separatist movement in Assam led by the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) has crippled the economy of the region, but Kaziranga has remained unaffected by the movement; indeed, instances of rebels from the United Liberation Front of Assam protecting the animals and, in extreme cases, killing poachers, have been reported since the 1980s.

Etymology

Although the etymology of the name Kaziranga is not certain, there exist a number of possible explanations derived from local legends and records. According to one legend, a girl named Ranga, from a nearby village, and a youth named Kazi, from Karbi Anglong, fell in love. This match was not acceptable to their families, and the couple disappeared into the forest, never to be seen again, and the forest was named after them.[citation needed] According to another legend, Srimanta Sankardeva, the sixteenth century Vaisnava saint-scholar, once blessed a childless couple, Kazi and Rangai, and asked them to dig a big pond in the region so that their name would live on.[9]

Testimony to the long history of the name can be found in some records, which state that once, while the Ahom king Pratap Singha was passing by the region during the seventeenth century, he was particularly impressed by the taste of fish, and on asking was told it came from Kaziranga.[10]Kaziranga also could mean the “Land of red goats (Deer)”, as the word Kazi in the Karbi language means “goat”, and Rangai means “red”.[10]

Some historians believe, however, that the name Kaziranga was derived from the Karbi word Kajir-a-rong, which means “the village of Kajir” (kajiror gaon). Among the Karbis, Kajir is a common name for a girl child,[citation needed] and it was believed that a woman named Kajir once ruled over the area. Fragments of monoliths associated with Karbi rule found scattered in the area seem to bear testimony to this assertion.

Fauna

Kaziranga contains significant breeding populations of 35 mammalian species,[20] of which 15 are threatened as per the IUCN Red List.[citation needed] The park has the distinction of being home to the world’s largest population of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros(1,855),[21][22] wild Asiatic water buffalo (1,666)[23] and eastern swamp deer (468).[24] Significant populations of large herbivores include elephants (1,940),[25] gaur (30) and sambar (58). Small herbivores include the Indian muntjac, wild boar, and hog deer.[18][26] Kaziranga has the largest population of the Wild water buffalo anywhere accounting for about 57% of the world population.[27] The One-Horned rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo and swamp deer are collectively known as ‘Big Five’ of Kaziranga.

Kaziranga is one of the few wild breeding areas outside Africa for multiple species of large cats, such as Bengal tigers and leopards.[20]Kaziranga was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006 and has the highest density of tigers in the world (one per five km2), with a population of 118, according to the latest census.[21] Other felids include the jungle cat, fishing cat, and leopard cat.[20] Small mammals include the rare hispid hare, Indian gray mongoose, small Indian mongooses, large Indian civet, small Indian civets, Bengal fox, golden jackal, sloth bear, Chinese pangolin, Indian pangolins, hog badger, Chinese ferret badgers, and particoloured flying squirrel.[18][20][citation needed] Nine of the 14 primate species found in India occur in the park.[4] Prominent among them are the Assamese macaque, capped and golden langur, as well as the only ape found in India, the hoolock gibbon. Kaziranga’s rivers are also home to the endangered Ganges dolphin. An Indian roller at Kaziranga

Kaziranga has been identified by Birdlife International as an Important Bird Area.[28] It is home to a variety of migratory birds, water birds, predators, scavengers, and game birds. Birds such as the lesser white-fronted goose, ferruginous duck, Baer’s pochard duck and lesser adjutant, greater adjutant, black-necked stork, and Asian openbill stork migrate from Central Asia to the park during winter.[29] Riverine birds include the Blyth’s kingfisher, white-bellied heron, Dalmatian pelican, spot-billed pelican, Nordmann’s greenshank, and black-bellied tern.[29]:p.10 Birds of prey include the rare eastern imperial, greater spotted, white-tailed, Pallas’s fish eagle, grey-headed fish eagle, and the lesser kestrel.[30]

Kaziranga was once home to seven species of vultures, but the vulture population reached near extinction, supposedly by feeding on animal carcasses containing the drug Diclofenac.[31] Only the Indian vulture, slender-billed vulture, and Indian white-rumped vulture have survived.[31] Game birds include the swamp francolin, Bengal florican, and pale-capped pigeon.[29]:p.03

Other families of birds inhabiting Kaziranga include the great Indian hornbill and wreathed hornbill, Old World babblers such as Jerdon’s and marsh babblers, weaver birds such as the common baya weaver, threatened Finn’s weavers, thrushes such as Hodgson’s bushchat and Old World warblers such as the bristled grassbird. Other threatened species include the black-breasted parrotbill and the rufous-vented prinia.[29]:p.07–13

Two of the largest snakes in the world, the reticulated python and rock python, as well as the longest venomous snake in the world, the king cobra, inhabit the park. Other snakes found here include the Indian cobra, monocled cobra, Russell’s viper, and the common krait.[20] Monitor lizard species found in the park include the Bengal monitor and the Asian water monitor.[20] Other reptiles include fifteen species of turtle, such as the endemic Assam roofed turtle and one species of tortoise, the brown tortoise.[20] 42 species of fish are found in the area, including the Tetraodon.[20]

Rani ki vav

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Rani ki vav is an intricately constructed stepwell situated in the town of Patan in Gujarat, India. It is located on the banks of Saraswati River. Rani ki vav was built as a memorial to an 11th century AD king Bhimdev I It was added to the list of UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites on 22 June 2014. Stepwells are a distinctive form of subterranean water resource and storage systems on the Indian subcontinent, and have been constructed since the third millennium BC. Rani ki vav was built in the complex Maru-Gurjara architectural style with an inverted temple and seven levels of stairs and holds more than 500 principal sculptures.

History

Rani ki vav, or Ran-ki vav (Queen’s step well) was constructed during the rule of the Chaulukya dynasty. It is generally assumed that it was built in the memory of Bhima I (r. c. 1022–1064) by his widowed queen Udayamati and probably completed by Udayamati and Karna after his death. A reference to Udayamati building the monument is in Prabandha Chintamani, composed by the Jain monk Merunga Suri in 1304 AD.

The stepwell was later flooded by the nearby Saraswati River and silted over until the late 1980s. When it was excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India, the carvings were found in pristine condition.

Architecture

This magnificent east-facing step well measures approximately 64 m long, 20 m wide & 27 m deep. A stepped corridor compartmented at regular intervals pillared multistory pavilions is a unique feature. It was one of the largest and the most sumptuous structures of its type. It became silted up and much of it is not visible now, except for some rows of sculptured panels in the circular part of the well. Among its ruins one pillar still stands which is an excellent example of this period of design. A part only of the west well is extant from which it appears that the wall had been built of brick and faced with stone. From this wall project vertical brackets in pairs, which supported the different galleries of the well shaft proper. The bracketing is arranged in tiers and is richly carved. The minute and exquisite carving of this vav is one of the finest specimens of its kind. Befitting its name, the Rani-Ki-Vav is now considered to be the queen among step wells of India.

There is also a small gate below the last step of the step well, with a 30 kilometre tunnel, currently blocked by stones and mud) which leads to the town of Sidhpur near Patan. It was used as an escape gateway for the king, who built the step well in the times of defeat.

Ornate side walls

Most of the sculptures are in devotion to Vishnu, in the forms of Dus-Avatars Kalki, Rama, Krishna, Narsinh, Vaman, Varahi and others representing their return to the world. NagkanyaYogini beautiful women – Apsara showcasing 16 different styles of make-up to look more attractive called Solah-shringar.

Around 50–60 years back there were ayurvedic plants around this area, and the water accumulated in Rani ki vav was considered to be helpful for viral disease, fever etc.

The vavs of Gujarat are not merely sites for collecting water and socializing, but also hold great spiritual significance. Originally, the vavs of Gujarat were constructed quite simply, but became more intricate over the years, perhaps to make explicit the ancient concept of the sanctity of water with the addition of carved stone deities. Thus visitors enter Rani Ki Vav as if it is an inverted temple, where one steps down various levels to the water.

The steps begin at ground level, leading you down through the cool air through several pillared pavilions to reach the deep well below. There are more than 800 elaborate sculptures among seven galleries. The central theme is the Dasavataras, or ten incarnations of Vishnu, including Buddha. The avatars are accompanied by sadhus, Brahmins, and apsaras (celestial dancers), painting their lips and adorning themselves. At water level you come to a carving of Sheshashayi-Vishnu, in which Vishnu reclines on the thousand-hooded serpent Shesha, where it is said he rests in the infinity between ages.

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Hampi-A story in stone

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Emperor Ashoka’s Rock Edicts in Nittur & Udegolan (both in Bellary district) suggest that this region was part of the Maurya Empireduring the 3rd century BC. A Brahmi inscription and a terracotta seal dating to the II century CE were also recovered from the excavation site.

The first settlements in Hampi date from 1 CE.

Immediately before the rise of the Vijayanagara kings, the region was probably in the hands of chiefs of Kampili, now a small town, 19 km east of Hampi.

Hampi was one of the best areas of the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire from 1343 to 1565, when it was besieged by the Deccan Muslim confederacy. Hampi was chosen because of its strategic location, bounded by the torrential Tungabhadra river on one side and surrounded by defensible hills on the other three sides.

The ruins of Hampi were surveyed in 1800 by Scottish Colonel Colin Mackenzie, first Surveyor General of India.

The site is significant historically and architecturally. The landscape abounds with large stones which have been used to make statues of Jaina deities. The Archaeological Survey of India continues to conduct excavations in the area.

The Islamic Quarter, sometimes called the Moorish Quarter, is located between the northern slope of the Malyavanta hill and the Talarigatta Gate. According to archaeologists, high-ranking Muslim officers of the king’s court and military officers lived in this area.[8]

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Khajuraho Group of Monuments

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi. They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures.

Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty. Historical records note that the Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers Of these, only about 25 temples have survived, spread over 6 square kilometers. Of the various surviving temples, the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art.

The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region.[7]

The Khajuraho group of monuments was built during the rule of the Chandela dynasty. The building activity started almost immediately after the rise of their power, throughout their kingdom to be later known as Bundelkhand. Most temples were built during the reigns of the Hindu kings Yashovarman and Dhanga. Yashovarman’s legacy is best exhibited by The Lakshmana Temple. Vishvanatha temple best highlights King Dhanga’s reign. The largest and currently most famous surviving temple is Kandariya Mahadeva built in the reign of King Vidyadhara. The temple inscriptions suggest many of the currently surviving temples were complete between 970 and 1030 CE, with further temples completed during the following decades.

The Khajuraho temples were built about 35 miles from the medieval city of Mahoba, the capital of the Chandela dynasty, in the Kalinjar region. In ancient and medieval literature, their kingdom has been referred to as Jijhoti, Jejahoti, Chih-chi-to and Jejakabhukti.

Khajuraho was mentioned by Abu Rihan-al-Biruni, the Persian historian who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his raid of Kalinjar in 1022 CE; he mentions Khajuraho as the capital of Jajahuti. The raid was unsuccessful, and a peace accord was reached when the Hindu king agreed to pay a ransom to Mahmud of Ghazni to end the attack and leave.

Khajuraho temples were in active use through the end of 12th century. This changed in the 13th century; after the army of Delhi Sultanate, under the command of the Muslim Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak, attacked and seized the Chandela kingdom. About a century later, Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan traveller in his memoirs about his stay in India from 1335 to 1342 CE, mentioned visiting Khajuraho temples, calling them “Kajarra as follows:

Arts and sculpture

The Khajuraho temples feature a variety of art work, of which 10% is sexual or erotic art outside and inside the temples. Some of the temples that have two layers of walls have small erotic carvings on the outside of the inner wall. Some scholars suggest these to be tantric sexual practices. Other scholars state that the erotic arts are part of Hindu tradition of treating kama as an essential and proper part of human life, and its symbolic or explicit display is common in Hindu temples. James McConnachie, in his history of the Kamasutra, describes the sexual-themed Khajuraho sculptures as “the apogee of erotic art”:

Seven Sister States

History

When India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947, only three states covered the area. Manipur and Tripura were princely states, while a much larger AssamProvince was under direct British rule. Its capital was Shillong (present day Meghalaya’s capital). Four new states were carved out of the original territory of Assam in the decades following independence, in line with the policy of the Indian government of reorganizing the states along ethnic and linguistic lines. Accordingly, Nagaland became a separate state in 1963, followed by Meghalaya in 1972. Mizoram became a Union Territory in 1972, and achieved statehood – along with Arunachal Pradesh in 1987.

The region has suffered from insurgency and intra-tribal warfare, including terrorism, for decades; from 2005 to 2015 about 5,500 have died from political violence.[1] The Indian government passed a law, the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 that applies to just the seven states and grants security forces the power to search properties without a warrant, and to arrest people, and to use deadly force if there is “reasonable suspicion” that a person is acting against the state; a similar law applies to Jammu & Kashmir.[1]

Ethnic and religious composition

The indigenous tribes of North Eastern India are the Bodo, the Nishi people, the Garo people, the Nagas, Bhutia and many others.

Except for Assam, where the major language is Assamese, and Tripura, where the major language is Bengali, the region has a predominantly tribal population that speak numerous Sino-Tibetan and Austro-Asiatic languages. Meithei, the third most spoken language in this region is a Sino-Tibetan language. The large and populous states of Assam, Manipur and Tripura remain predominantly Hindu, with a sizable Muslim minority in Assam. Christianity is the major religion in the states of Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya.

Natural resources

The main industries in the region are tea-based, crude oil and natural gas, silk, bamboo and handicrafts. The states are heavily forested and have plentiful rainfall. There are beautiful wildlife sanctuaries, tea-estates and mighty rivers like Brahmaputra. The region is home to one-horned rhinoceros, elephants and other endangered wildlife. For security reasons, including intertribal tensions, widespread insurgencies, and disputed borders with neighboring China, there are restrictions on foreigners visiting the area, hampering the development of the potentially profitable travel tourism and hospitality industry. The North Eastern Council developed a marketing tagline, “Paradise Unexplored”.[2]

Interdependence

A compact geographical unit, the Northeast is isolated from the rest of India except through the Siliguri Corridor, a slender corridor, flanked by foreign territories. Assam is the gateway through which the sister states are connected to the mainland. Tripura, a virtual enclave almost surrounded by Bangladesh, strongly depends on Assam. Nagaland, Meghalaya and Arunachal depend on Assam for their internal communications. Manipur and Mizoram’s contacts with the main body of India are through Assam’s Barak Valley. Raw material requirements also make the states mutually dependent. All rivers in Assam’s plains originate in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and western Meghalaya. Manipur’s rivers have their sources in Nagaland and Mizoram; the hills also have rich mineral and forest resources. Petroleum is found in the plains.[citation needed]

The plains depend on the hills also on vital questions like flood control. Flood control in the plains requires for soil conservation and afforestation in the hills. The hills depend on the plains for markets for their produce. They depend on the plains even for food grains because of limited cultivable land in the hill.[citation needed]

To provide a forum for collaboration towards common objectives, the Indian government established in 1971 the North Eastern Council that nowadays includes Sikkim too. Each state is represented by its Governor and Chief Minister. The Council has enabled the Seven Sister States to work together on numerous matters, including the provision of educational facilities and electric supplies to the region.

Origin of “Land of Seven Sisters” sobriquet

The sobriquet ‘Land of the Seven Sisters’ was coined to coincide with the inauguration of the new states in January 1972 by Jyoti Prasad Saikia, a journalist in Tripura, in the course of a radio talk show. He later compiled a book on the interdependence and commonness of the Seven Sister States, and named it the Land of Seven Sisters. It has been primarily because of this publication that the nickname has caught on.