Join Royal Enfield enthusiasts from all over the world for five magical days on the sunny shores of Goa. Immerse yourself in competitions, races, expert sessions, concerts, while having the party of your life. Be part of the world’s largest gathering of Royal Enfield riders, and get a first-hand experience of the Royal Enfield way of life.
The Kodavas were the earliest inhabitants and agriculturists in Kodagu, having lived there for centuries. Being a warrior community as well, they carried arms during times of war and had their own chieftains. The Haleri dynasty, an offshoot of the Keladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. Later the British ruled
Kodagu from 1834, after the Coorg War, until India’s independence in 1947. A separate state (called Coorg State) until then, in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore State (now Karnataka).
Coorg in British India
In 1834, the East India Company annexed Kodagu into British India, after deposing Chikka Virarajendra of the Kodagu kingdom, as ‘Coorg’. The people accepted British rule peacefully. British rule led to the establishment of educational institutions, introduction of scientific coffee cultivation, better administration and improvement of the economy.
also referred to as the Group of Monuments at Hampi, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in east-central Karnataka, India. It became the centre of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire capital in the 14th century. Chronicles left by Persian and European travellers, particularly the Portuguese, state Hampi was a prosperous, wealthy and grand city near the Tungabhadra River, with numerous temples, farms and trading markets. By 1500 CE, Hampi-Vijayanagara was the world’s second-largest medieval-era city after Beijing, and probably India’s richest at that time, attracting traders from Persia and Portugal. The Vijayanagara Empire was defeated by a coalition of Muslim sultanates;
its capital was conquered, pillaged and destroyed by sultanate armies in 1565, after which Hampi remained in ruins.
Located in Karnataka near the modern-era city of Hosapete, Hampi’s ruins are spread over 4,100 hectares (16 sq mi) and it has been described by UNESCO as an “austere, grandiose site” of more than 1,600 surviving remains of the last great Hindu kingdom in South India that includes “forts, riverside features, royal and sacred complexes, temples, shrines, pillared halls, mandapas, memorial structures, water structures and others”. Hampi predates the Vijayanagara Empire; there is evidence of Ashokan epigraphy, and it is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Puranas of Hinduism as Pampaa Devi Tirtha Kshetra. Hampi continues to be an important religious centre, housing the Virupaksha Temple, an active Adi Shankara-linked monastery and various monuments belonging to the old city.
About this soundpronunciation (help·info) is a City and a municipal council in Solapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is situated 40 km southeast of Solapur and very close to the border between Maharashtra and Karnataka states.
Akkalkot was the home to Shri Swami Samarth Maharaj, a 19th-century saint who is believed by his devotees to be an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya. Akkalkot State during the British Raj, was a princely state ruled by the royal Bhonsale dynasty.
|Date||Day||Places||Start||End||Remarks||Distance in Km||Total Distance in Km|
|5-Oct-19||Saturday||Meeting at NXG Wheels||4:00 AM|
|5-Oct-19||Saturday||Move to Hubli||4:30 AM||11:00 PM||Visit kolhapur and stay at Hubli||590||590|
|6-Oct-19||Sunday||Hubli - Coorg||5:00 AM||10:00 PM||Stay at Coorg||500||1090|
|9-Oct-19||Wednesday||Coorg - Hampi||7:00 AM||6:00 PM||Stay at Hampi||450||1540|
|12-Oct-19||Saturday||Hampi - Akkalkot||6:00 AM||5:00 PM||Stay at Akkalkot||350||1890|
|13-Oct-19||Sunday||Ride till Dombivli||6:00 AM||6:00 PM||Home||450||2340|
Shree Mahalaxmi Temple (Kolhapur)
Gokarna beach road
Dubare Elephant Camp
Nagarhole National Park
Hemakuta Hill temple
Laxmi narasimha temple
Hazara rama temple
Matanga Hill (Sunset)
Badami Caves Temple
Bookings are closed for this event.
is one of the many historical forts in the rugged hills of Sahyadri mountains (Western Ghats). It consists of two twin fortresses Shriwardhan Ballekilla and Manaranjan Balekilla, with a wide machi (plateau) surrounding the two Balekillas. Udhewadi is a small village of about 22 houses situated on the machi, at the southern foot of Manaranjan Balekilla of Rajmachi Fort.
There are two approaches to Fort Rajmachi, (a) from Lonavala and (b) from Kondivde or Kondhane village in Karjat Taluka of Raigad District. Lonavala – Rajmachi distance is 15 km and it is almost a plain walk, though there are a few ups and downs on this path. It takes about three and a half hour to cover the distance on foot. From Kondivde or Kondhane village, it is a steep climb up to Rajmachi. An experienced trekker takes about two and a half hour to climb up on this route. In case a Trekkers’ Group is not familiar with the Trek Route, they should hire a local Route Guide During the dry season after rains, i.e. from November to May, a strong and sturdy utility vehicle like Tata Sumo, Mahindra Bolero, Qualis, etc. can be taken right up to Udhewdi (Fort Rajmachi). The route is via Khandala, Kune village, Della Adventure Resort, Patel Dam, Phanasrai and Jambhali Phata. The initial section of this route up to Della Adventure Resort is a good road, The further portion of this route is a very rough track and therefore not fit for driving ordinary passenger cars like Maruti 800, Wagon R, Indica, Swift, etc. Sturdy utility vehicle like Tata Sumo can be hired at Lonavla or Khandala for reaching Rajmachi Fort.
राजमाची किल्ल्याच्या पश्चिम उतारावर बौध्द लेणं आहे. यालाच ‘कोंढाणे लेणी’ असे म्हणतात.ही लेणी कोंढाणे या रायगड जिल्ह्यातील कर्जत तालुक्यातील गावापासून आग्रेयेस २ कि.मी अंतरावर आहेत.ही लेणी ख्रिस्तपूर्व दुसऱ्या शतकात म्हणजे सातवाहनकालाच्या सुरवातीला खोदलेली आहेत.अखंड दगडात कोरलेल्या वास्तुशिल्पाचा हा उत्कृष्ठ नमुना आहे.या लेणी समुहात एक चैत्यगृह आणि सात विहारांचा समावेश आहे. या लेण्यांची निर्मिती राजमाचीवर असणाऱ्या सत्तेखाली झाली. यावरुनच असे अनुमान निघते की हा किल्ला साधारण २५०० वर्षापूर्वीचा असावा. राजमाची किल्ल्यास पूर्वी ‘कोंकणचा दरवाजा’संबोधण्यात येत असे. कल्याणच्या १६५७ च्या स्वारी नंतर त्याचवर्षी शिवाजी महाराजांनी पुणे आणि कल्याण विभागात असलेल्या बोरघाटावरील राजमाची ,लोहगड, तुंग, तिकोना, विसापूर किल्ले स्वराज्यात दाखल करून घेतले. यामुळे पुण्यापासून ते ठाण्यापर्यंतचा सर्व प्रदेशावर शिवशाहीचे वर्चस्व प्रस्थापित झाले. पुढे संभाजी महाराज जिवंत असे पर्यंत म्हणजेच सन १६८९ पर्यंत हे सर्व किल्ले मराठयांच्या ताब्यात होते. यानंतर १७१३ मध्ये शाहुमहाराजांनी कान्होजी आंग्रे यांना हा किल्ला दिला . सन १७३० मध्ये हा किल्ला पहिले बाजीराव पेशवे यांच्याकडे आला.१७७६मध्ये सदाशिवराव भाऊचा तोतया संपूर्ण कोकण प्रांत काबीज करीत बोरघाटा पर्यंत पोहचला.त्याने राजमाची किल्ला घेतला.यानंतर या तोतयाचे वर्चस्व वाढले मात्र पेशव्यांनी त्याच्यावर हल्ला करून राजमाची किल्ला आणि आजुबाजुचा परिसर आपल्या ताब्यात घेतला.पुढे १८१८ मध्ये किल्ला इंग्रजांकडे गेला. राजमाचीवर मनोरंजन व श्रीवर्धन हे दोन बालेकिल्ले आहेत. मनोरंजनच्या पायथ्यापाशी उढेवाडी ही २०, २२ घरांची पाणभरे कोळी लोकांची वाडी आहे. वाडीलगतच मारुतीचे मंदिर आहे. तेथून पुढे दक्षिण दिशेला संरक्षित वन आहे. हे वन जेथे आहे त्या ठिकाणी किल्यावरील अधिकारी लोकांचे निवासी वाडे होते. इसवीसन १८१८ मध्ये किल्ला इंग्रजांच्या ताब्यात गेल्यामुळे मराठी राज्यातील त्या अधिकाऱ्यांना स्थलांतर करावे लागले. नंतरच्या काळात इंग्रजांनी सह्याद्रितील किल्ले वनखात्याच्या ताब्यात दिले. त्यामुळे पूर्वी जिथे अधिकारी लोकांचे निवासी वाडे होते तेथे संरक्षित वन तयार झाले. या वनात अनेक वाड्यांचे भग्नावशेष दिसतात. तसेच या वनात एक चिरेबंदी कोरडी विहिर आहे. या विहिरीत पाणी टिकत नाही. वर उल्लेख केलेल्या संरक्षित वनाच्या आग्नेय दिशेला, वनापासून खालच्या पातळीवर एक मोठा तलाव आहे. रामराव नारायणराव देशमुख, मामले दंडाराजपुरी यांनी हा तलाव शके १७१२ मध्ये बांधला असावा. त्यांच्या नावाचा शिलालेख सदर तलावाच्या भिंतीत (भिंतीच्या उत्तरेकडील टोकापासून काहि अंतरावर) आहे. सदर तलावाच्या पश्चिम बाजूला पुरातन शिवमंदिर आहे. हे मंदिर हेमाडपंती बांधणीचे आहे. मंदिराच्या मागून एक झरा (पाण्याचा प्रवाह) निघतो. या प्रवाहावरच मंदिर बांधलेले आहे. मंदिराच्या गर्भगृहाखालून हा प्रवाह वाहतो व मंदिराच्य़ा दर्शनी भागात जोत्यात बसविलेल्या दगडी गोमुखातून बाहेर पडतो. गोमुखाखाली दगडात बांधलेले कुंड आहे त्यात गोमुखातून पडणारे पाणी साठते व ते पुढे तलावात जाते. याप्रकारे, एका नैसर्गिक झऱ्यावर वरच्या बाजूला सुंदर शिव मंदिर व खाली मोठा तलाव अशी रचना केलेली आहे. राजमाचीवरील उढेवाडीच्या विकासासाठी Rajmachi Rural Aid and Development Programme या स्वयंसेवी संस्थेने इसवीसन १९७६ पासून अनेक वर्षे काम केले. वाडीतील मुलांचे शिक्षण, मोफत वैद्यकीय सेवा, रोजगार निर्मिती, झाडांची लागवड, किल्यावरील जलाशयांची साफसफाई करून वाडीतील रहिवाशांना स्वच्छ पाणी पुरविणे, अशी विविध कामे सदर संस्थेने केली.त्यामुळे, उढेवाडीच्या विकासाला चालना मिळाली. राजमाची किल्ला पहायला येणाऱ्या दुर्गप्रेमींच्या मुक्कामासाठी एक कँपिंग साइट सदर संस्थेने उढेवाडीजवळच तयार केली आहे. याबाबत अधिक माहिती http://visitrajmachi.blogspot.com/ या ब्लॉगवर उपलब्ध आहे. गिरी भ्रमंतीची व दुर्ग भ्रमंतीची ज्यांना आवड आहे त्यांच्यासाठी राजमाची किल्ला हे एक सुंदर स्थळ आहे. उल्हास नदीच्या या पात्रात कोंदीवडे आणि कोंढाणा जवळ एका मोठा दगडात २१ हंडे पाणी मावेल एवढा पाळणा कोरला असून त्यामध्ये एका बालकाची मूर्ती कोरली आहे.पूर्वी स्थनिक लोक मुलं होण्यासाठी येथे नवस करत असा संदर्भ महाराष्ट्र गॅझेटिअर रायगड जिल्हा सन १९९३ पृष्ठ क्रं ७२१ वर दिला आहे.या परिसरात याला ‘जिजाऊ कुंड ‘म्हणतात या कुंडात लोक मोठा श्रध्देने सूर्यस्नान करतात.
🅾 Route | Panvel- lonavla – Rajmachi and back
🅾 Date |28 July 2019
🅾 Total Distance | 240 Km round off approximately.
🅾 Assembly Time – 6:30 a.m.
🅾 Assembly Location | Shree Dutta Snacks , Panvel
🅾 Flag off | 07:00 a.m. Sharp
🅾 Mandatory : Helmet | Boots | Safety Gears | Driving License | Valid Legal Motorcycle Documents.
🅾 Guest Rider and Non Paid Members will be charged extra ₹200/- thru Bank Transfer only.
Beneficiary Name:- Royal Indian Devotes
Name of the Bank : -Yes Bank
Branch:- Napeansea Road
IFSC code:- YESB0000247
Account Type:- Current Account
- Its FREE of cost ride whereas Fuel, Food & other expenses will be paid by individuals as per actual.
- Please carry rain coat and plastic bags considering rain on the way.
- Apart from ride , we will be enjoying river crossing and small Waterfall.
⛔R!D does not support to “Drinking & Riding”⛔
Ride Captain : Bhupesh Nehete +919619131323
Bookings are closed for this event.
Bookings are closed for this event.
After Tibet became a part of China, and Dalai Lama took shelter in the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, a big number of Tibetan immigrants followed (the number is still increasing everyday) and started living in the border areas, with Himachal Pradesh having the majority. Today, Himachal Pradesh looks just as much a part of Tibet as it is of India.
The last stop on an old trade route to Tibet and at the junction of several trekking routes, Chitkul, in Himachal Pradesh is the last Indian town to Tibet. The only buildings you see in Chitkul are a handful of slate and wooden-plan rooftop houses, built in the traditional Himachali style architecture. Chitkul Fort, a beautiful but ancient building, made out of wood and stone, for example, is one among them. Location: Chitkul, Himachal Pradesh.
The many ancient monasteries, other than the popular Kagyupa temple, moreover make Chitkul another religious town in Himachal Pradesh. But civilized by a 100% Tibetan community, it feels more like Tibet and less like India. Location: Chitkul Himachal Pradesh.
The state of Himachal Pradesh is dotted with various holy sites, revered by people of many faiths. And among all, one of the most famous holy place is the Key Monastery in Lahaul and Spiti. Located on top of a hill at an altitude of 4,166 metres above sea level, close to the Spiti River, Key Monastry dates its foundation back in 11th century.Location: Key, Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh.
Tibetan architecture contains Chinese and Indian influences but has many unique features brought about by its adaptation to the cold, generally arid, high-altitude climate of the Tibetan plateau. And a part of it, can be explored in Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh. Location: Tabo, Himachal Pradesh.
Dubbed as ‘Dev Bhumi’, or the Land of Gods, Himachal Pradesh has a very rich mythological past too. And with people believing in their own local deity, they have their own way to practice spiritual practices. For example most of the temples, particularly around the popular Kullu Valley stay close for public, and only open during religious ceremonies. Location: Naggar, Himachal Pradesh.
Raigad is a hill fort situated in the Mahad, Raigad district of Maharashtra, India. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj built this fort and made it his capital in 1674 when he was crowned as the King of a Maratha Kingdom which later developed into the Maratha Empire, eventually covering much of western and central India.
The fort rises 820 metres (2,700 ft) above the sea level and is located in the Sahyadri mountain range. There are approximately 1737 steps leading to the fort. The Raigad Ropeway, an aerial tramway exists to reach the top of the fort in 10 minutes. The fort was looted and destroyed by the British after it was captured in 1818.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj seized the fort in 1656, then known as the fort of Rairi from Chandrarrao More, a feudatory of the Sultan of Bijapur. Shivaji Maharaj renovated and expanded the fort of Rairi and renamed it as Raigad (King’s Fort). It became the capital of Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaja’s maratha kingdom.
The villages of Pachad and Raigadwadi are located at the base of the Raigad fort. These two villages were considered very important during the Maratha rule in Raigad. The actual climb to the top of the Raigad fort starts from Pachad. During Chhatrapati Shivaji’s rule, A cavalry of 10,000 was always kept on standby in Pachad village.
After capturing Rairi from Chandrarao More, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj also built another fort Lingana around 2 miles away from Raigad. The Lingana fort was used to keep prisoners.
In 1689, Zulfikhar Khan captured Raigad and Aurangzeb renamed it as Islamgad. In 1707, Siddi Fathekan captured the fort and held it until 1733.
In 1765, The fort of Raigad along with Malwan in present Sindhudurg District, the southernmost district of Maharashtra, was the target of an armed expedition by the British East India Company, which considered it a pratical stronghold.
In 1818, the fort was bombarded and destroyed by cannons from the hill of Kalkai. And on 9 May 1818, as per the treaty, it was handed over to the British East India Company.
Gir National Park: The Majestic Home of the Royal King:
Besides Africa, Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only place in the world where you can spot lions roaming free in the wild. The real discovery channel of India is situated approximately 65 Kms South East of Junagarh District. The Government notified the large geographical extent of Sasan Gir as wildlife sanctuary on 18th September, 1965 in order to conserve the Asiatic Lion. It covers total area of 1412 square kilometers of which 258 Km forms the core area of the National Park. Indiscriminate hunting by the people of Junagarh led to their decrease in population drastically, while they were completely wiped out from the other parts of Asia. It was the kind effort of Nawabs of Junagarh who protected the queen royalty in his own private hunting grounds. Later in due course of time Department of Forest Officials came forward to protect the world’s most threatened species. From a population of approximately 20 lions in 1913, they have risen to a comfortable 523 according to 2015 census. There are 106 male, 201 female and 213 sub-adult lions in the wilderness of these four districts.
Subtle Glimpses of Major Attractions at Sasan Gir:
Animals:The entire forest area of the Gir National Park is dry and deciduous which provides best habitat for Asiatic Lions. As per the new statics of 2015, the entire Saurashtra Region is inhabited by 523 Lions and more than 300 Leopards. Apart from these two animals the park is a home to two different species of Deer. The Sambar is counted largest Indian Deer. The Gir forest is also known for the Chowsingha – the world’s only four horned antelope. The Jackal, striped Hyena and India Fox are some of the smaller carnivores found in Gir Forest.
Birds: The exotic flora of Gir National Park gives shelter to more than 200 species of birds and moreover the sanctuary has been declared an important bird area by the Indian Bird Conservation Network. Gir is also habitat of raptors like critically endangered white-backed and long-billed vultures.
Reptiles:Sasan Gir is blessed with more than 40 species of reptiles and amphibians. Kamleshwar – a large reservoir in the sanctuary is the best spot where Marsh Crocodile can be seen in large numbers. Park has even many species of snake including King Kobra, the Russell’s viper, Saw-scaled viper and the Krait.
Gir Interpretation Zone, Devaliya: Devaliya Safari Park is enclosed area of the Sanctuary that offers a good opportunity for visitors to experience a rustic beauty and wilderness of the area. The safari tour is conducted in a mini bus that takes visitors to another cross section of the Gir. Travelers can watch here a good variety of wildlife in just 20 to 30 minutes tour including Asiatic Lion.
How to Reach Gir National Park Gir: National Park attracts large number of tourists to witness the Asiatic lion, as this is the sole place all across the world where these creatures are presently found. Once extinct, numbers have been recovered owing to the conservation efforts. The Sanctuary is open for tourism from 16th October to 15th June every year.
Junagadh is perhaps the best approach to the park. The railway station in Junagadh receives trains from different cities like Ahmedabad and Rajkot and other major cities. Then, from here it takes approximately one and half hour to reach Sasan Gir National Park.
From Rajkot-On reaching Rajkot Railway Station or Airport you can take a cab or bus and to reach a Limda chowk. There are a number of privately operated that go to Junagadh at frequent intervals. Junagadh is nearly 105 Kms from the city Rajkot and it takes nearly 2 and a half to 3 hours to cover the distance.From this point you have two options. First one is either you take a bus from gate number 11or 12 to Sasan Gir or travel by taxi that is accessible bang opposite the taxi stand. The taxi will take nearly one and half an hour and will charge reasonably and will drop you to Sasan Gir.
From Somnath to Gir National Park: Road Distance or the driving distance from the Gir National Park to Somnath is approximately 50 Kms and it takes nearly 1 hour to cover this distance. GSRTC buses and quite a few private buses ply between both the cities and take you directly to Sasan Gir Forest.
From Diu To Sasan Gir Park: Diu airport is closest to the Gir National Park. From here you can hire that are present just outside the airport which will take you to Sasan Gir. Sasan Gir is nearly 110 kms airport of Diu and takes approximately 2 hours to cover this distance. If you have a late afternoon flight it is better to take a halt at Diu or can visit Somnath Temple which is nearly 80 kms from Diu and the road too is good except in little patches. It just takes an hour to reach Somnath from Diu. Next morning you can move on to Sasan Gir which is just 40 kms from here and just takes half an hour to cover this distance.Some other routes to reach Sasan Gir by road is from Keshod which also has an airport and is 45 kms, Veraval is 40 kms away, Junagadh is 55kms, Rajkot is 160Kms, Ahemedabad is 410Kms. The closeby railway stations are Sasan which is 40 Kms and Rajkot which is 160 Kms.
If you can’t afford a taxi there are frequent buses that are playing throughout the day. The park is easily accessible from the beautiful beaches of Diu which is about two hours drive don’t want to take a taxi, pubic buses run regularly to Sasan Gir from both places during the day. People prefer private buses as it conveniently drops them to the Guest houses you want to reach. So in this way they are more convenient than the buses. No prior booking is required as the buses are available on any part of the day. So, come and enjoy the beautiful flora and fauna of Sasan Gir National Park and take home some of the most treasured moments back home.
|Name||Location/place name||Location/place name||Location/place name||Link to Entry|
|Neeraj Sinkar||Pench Tiger Reserve||Tadoba National Park||Mumbai - Chennai - Munnar||View Details|
|Abhishek Bagwe||Anjarle/Dapoli||View Details|
|Pranav Bhoir||Self Camping at Devkund||Hamppi , Gokarna, Snt Mary Islabd (Udappi)||View Details|
|Naynesh Pandya||Coastal karna take & kerela||View Details|
|Mayuresh Zele||Aurangabad||Sightseeing||Coorg||View Details|
|Gefel philips||Bhandardara let’s have it over night tent camping born fire||View Details|
|Sushant Kurhade||East coast of india||Spiti valley||View Details|
|Sunil Dange||Shirdi||Purushwadi||MSH4 - Coastal Konkan||View Details|
|Neal Agarwal||Turtuk||View Details|
|Shri KAMBLE||Alibaug||Bhandardara dam||Konkan ride||View Details|
|Mickey Rajput||Mumbai,udaipur,ajmer,jaipur,haryana,punjab,amritsar,karta,gulmarg,srinagar,kargil,leg,then coming via manali or spiti.||View Details|
|Challa Sandeep||Araku valley / visakhapatnam||View Details|
|Neeraj Sinkar||Leh, Umling La, Spiti||View Details|
|Shabarigiri J||Mahabaleshwar- sinhaga -station lavasha-lonavala||View Details|
|Shabarigiri J||Ladakh||Bhutan||Waynad||View Details|
|Neeraj Sinkar||Gir Forest||Rann of Kutch||Shegaon||View Details|
|Jitendra Vaidya||Bhutan||Solapur-Akkalkot-Tuljapur||View Details|
|Bhushan Sakpal||Hydrabad||View Details|
|Bhushan Sakpal||Humpi||View Details|
|Shashank Kulkarni||Mahalaxmi, Kolhapur. Shegano, Amaravati.||Kolhapur.||View Details|
|Mayuresh Zele||Shirdi night ride||View Details|
|Deepesh Singh||Hampi udipi gokarna dudhasagar||View Details|
|Harshal Sahastrabudhe||Wai-Satara||Dapoli||Rani ki vaav||View Details|
|Name||Location/place name||Location/place name||Location/place name||Link to Entry|
Kaziranga National Park (Assamese: কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, pronounced [kaziɹɔŋa ɹastɹijɔ udjan] ( listen)) is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary, which hosts two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site.
According to the census held in March 2015, which was jointly conducted by the Forest Department of the Government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs, the rhino population in Kaziranga National Park is 2,401. It comprises 1,651 adult rhinos (663 male, 802 are females, 186 unsexed); 294 sub-adults (90 males, 114 females, 90 unsexed); 251 juveniles and 205 cubs. Kaziranga is home to the highest density of tigers among protected areasin the world, and was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006. The park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer.
Kaziranga is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for conservation of avifaunal species. When compared with other protected areas in India, Kaziranga has achieved notable success in wildlife conservation. Located on the edge of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, the park combines high species diversity and visibility.
Kaziranga is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, criss-crossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, and the park includes numerous small bodies of water. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books, songs, and documentaries. The park celebrated its centennial in 2005 after its establishment in 1905 as a reserve forest.
The history of Kaziranga as a protected area can be traced back to 1904, when Mary Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston, the wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, visited the area. After failing to see a single rhinoceros, for which the area was renowned, she persuaded her husband to take urgent measures to protect the dwindling species which he did by initiating planning for their protection. On 1 June 1905, the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest was created with an area of 232 km2 (90 sq mi).
Over the next three years, the park area was extended by 152 km2 (59 sq mi), to the banks of the Brahmaputra River.[not in citation given] In 1908, Kaziranga was designated a “Reserve Forest”. In 1916, it was redesignated the “Kaziranga Game Sanctuary” and remained so till 1938, when hunting was prohibited and visitors were permitted to enter the park.
The Kaziranga Game Sanctuary was renamed the “Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary” in 1950 by P. D. Stracey, the forest conservationist, in order to rid the name of hunting connotations. In 1954, the government of Assam passed the Assam (Rhinoceros) Bill, which imposed heavy penalties for rhinoceros poaching. Fourteen years later, in 1968, the state government passed the Assam National Park Act of 1968, declaring Kaziranga a designated national park. The 430 km2 (166 sq mi) park was given official status by the central government on 11 February 1974. In 1985, Kaziranga was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO for its unique natural environment.
Kaziranga has been the target of several natural and man-made calamities in recent decades. Floods caused by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra, leading to significant losses of animal life. Encroachment by people along the periphery has also led to a diminished forest cover and a loss of habitat. An ongoing separatist movement in Assam led by the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) has crippled the economy of the region, but Kaziranga has remained unaffected by the movement; indeed, instances of rebels from the United Liberation Front of Assam protecting the animals and, in extreme cases, killing poachers, have been reported since the 1980s.
Although the etymology of the name Kaziranga is not certain, there exist a number of possible explanations derived from local legends and records. According to one legend, a girl named Ranga, from a nearby village, and a youth named Kazi, from Karbi Anglong, fell in love. This match was not acceptable to their families, and the couple disappeared into the forest, never to be seen again, and the forest was named after them. According to another legend, Srimanta Sankardeva, the sixteenth century Vaisnava saint-scholar, once blessed a childless couple, Kazi and Rangai, and asked them to dig a big pond in the region so that their name would live on.
Testimony to the long history of the name can be found in some records, which state that once, while the Ahom king Pratap Singha was passing by the region during the seventeenth century, he was particularly impressed by the taste of fish, and on asking was told it came from Kaziranga.Kaziranga also could mean the “Land of red goats (Deer)”, as the word Kazi in the Karbi language means “goat”, and Rangai means “red”.
Some historians believe, however, that the name Kaziranga was derived from the Karbi word Kajir-a-rong, which means “the village of Kajir” (kajiror gaon). Among the Karbis, Kajir is a common name for a girl child, and it was believed that a woman named Kajir once ruled over the area. Fragments of monoliths associated with Karbi rule found scattered in the area seem to bear testimony to this assertion.
Kaziranga contains significant breeding populations of 35 mammalian species, of which 15 are threatened as per the IUCN Red List. The park has the distinction of being home to the world’s largest population of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros(1,855), wild Asiatic water buffalo (1,666) and eastern swamp deer (468). Significant populations of large herbivores include elephants (1,940), gaur (30) and sambar (58). Small herbivores include the Indian muntjac, wild boar, and hog deer. Kaziranga has the largest population of the Wild water buffalo anywhere accounting for about 57% of the world population. The One-Horned rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo and swamp deer are collectively known as ‘Big Five’ of Kaziranga.
Kaziranga is one of the few wild breeding areas outside Africa for multiple species of large cats, such as Bengal tigers and leopards.Kaziranga was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006 and has the highest density of tigers in the world (one per five km2), with a population of 118, according to the latest census. Other felids include the jungle cat, fishing cat, and leopard cat. Small mammals include the rare hispid hare, Indian gray mongoose, small Indian mongooses, large Indian civet, small Indian civets, Bengal fox, golden jackal, sloth bear, Chinese pangolin, Indian pangolins, hog badger, Chinese ferret badgers, and particoloured flying squirrel. Nine of the 14 primate species found in India occur in the park. Prominent among them are the Assamese macaque, capped and golden langur, as well as the only ape found in India, the hoolock gibbon. Kaziranga’s rivers are also home to the endangered Ganges dolphin. An Indian roller at Kaziranga
Kaziranga has been identified by Birdlife International as an Important Bird Area. It is home to a variety of migratory birds, water birds, predators, scavengers, and game birds. Birds such as the lesser white-fronted goose, ferruginous duck, Baer’s pochard duck and lesser adjutant, greater adjutant, black-necked stork, and Asian openbill stork migrate from Central Asia to the park during winter. Riverine birds include the Blyth’s kingfisher, white-bellied heron, Dalmatian pelican, spot-billed pelican, Nordmann’s greenshank, and black-bellied tern.:p.10 Birds of prey include the rare eastern imperial, greater spotted, white-tailed, Pallas’s fish eagle, grey-headed fish eagle, and the lesser kestrel.
Kaziranga was once home to seven species of vultures, but the vulture population reached near extinction, supposedly by feeding on animal carcasses containing the drug Diclofenac. Only the Indian vulture, slender-billed vulture, and Indian white-rumped vulture have survived. Game birds include the swamp francolin, Bengal florican, and pale-capped pigeon.:p.03
Other families of birds inhabiting Kaziranga include the great Indian hornbill and wreathed hornbill, Old World babblers such as Jerdon’s and marsh babblers, weaver birds such as the common baya weaver, threatened Finn’s weavers, thrushes such as Hodgson’s bushchat and Old World warblers such as the bristled grassbird. Other threatened species include the black-breasted parrotbill and the rufous-vented prinia.:p.07–13
Two of the largest snakes in the world, the reticulated python and rock python, as well as the longest venomous snake in the world, the king cobra, inhabit the park. Other snakes found here include the Indian cobra, monocled cobra, Russell’s viper, and the common krait. Monitor lizard species found in the park include the Bengal monitor and the Asian water monitor. Other reptiles include fifteen species of turtle, such as the endemic Assam roofed turtle and one species of tortoise, the brown tortoise. 42 species of fish are found in the area, including the Tetraodon.
Rani ki vav is an intricately constructed stepwell situated in the town of Patan in Gujarat, India. It is located on the banks of Saraswati River. Rani ki vav was built as a memorial to an 11th century AD king Bhimdev I It was added to the list of UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites on 22 June 2014. Stepwells are a distinctive form of subterranean water resource and storage systems on the Indian subcontinent, and have been constructed since the third millennium BC. Rani ki vav was built in the complex Maru-Gurjara architectural style with an inverted temple and seven levels of stairs and holds more than 500 principal sculptures.
Rani ki vav, or Ran-ki vav (Queen’s step well) was constructed during the rule of the Chaulukya dynasty. It is generally assumed that it was built in the memory of Bhima I (r. c. 1022–1064) by his widowed queen Udayamati and probably completed by Udayamati and Karna after his death. A reference to Udayamati building the monument is in Prabandha Chintamani, composed by the Jain monk Merunga Suri in 1304 AD.
The stepwell was later flooded by the nearby Saraswati River and silted over until the late 1980s. When it was excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India, the carvings were found in pristine condition.
This magnificent east-facing step well measures approximately 64 m long, 20 m wide & 27 m deep. A stepped corridor compartmented at regular intervals pillared multistory pavilions is a unique feature. It was one of the largest and the most sumptuous structures of its type. It became silted up and much of it is not visible now, except for some rows of sculptured panels in the circular part of the well. Among its ruins one pillar still stands which is an excellent example of this period of design. A part only of the west well is extant from which it appears that the wall had been built of brick and faced with stone. From this wall project vertical brackets in pairs, which supported the different galleries of the well shaft proper. The bracketing is arranged in tiers and is richly carved. The minute and exquisite carving of this vav is one of the finest specimens of its kind. Befitting its name, the Rani-Ki-Vav is now considered to be the queen among step wells of India.
There is also a small gate below the last step of the step well, with a 30 kilometre tunnel, currently blocked by stones and mud) which leads to the town of Sidhpur near Patan. It was used as an escape gateway for the king, who built the step well in the times of defeat.
Ornate side walls
Most of the sculptures are in devotion to Vishnu, in the forms of Dus-Avatars Kalki, Rama, Krishna, Narsinh, Vaman, Varahi and others representing their return to the world. Nagkanya, Yogini beautiful women – Apsara showcasing 16 different styles of make-up to look more attractive called Solah-shringar.
Around 50–60 years back there were ayurvedic plants around this area, and the water accumulated in Rani ki vav was considered to be helpful for viral disease, fever etc.
The vavs of Gujarat are not merely sites for collecting water and socializing, but also hold great spiritual significance. Originally, the vavs of Gujarat were constructed quite simply, but became more intricate over the years, perhaps to make explicit the ancient concept of the sanctity of water with the addition of carved stone deities. Thus visitors enter Rani Ki Vav as if it is an inverted temple, where one steps down various levels to the water.
The steps begin at ground level, leading you down through the cool air through several pillared pavilions to reach the deep well below. There are more than 800 elaborate sculptures among seven galleries. The central theme is the Dasavataras, or ten incarnations of Vishnu, including Buddha. The avatars are accompanied by sadhus, Brahmins, and apsaras (celestial dancers), painting their lips and adorning themselves. At water level you come to a carving of Sheshashayi-Vishnu, in which Vishnu reclines on the thousand-hooded serpent Shesha, where it is said he rests in the infinity between ages.
Emperor Ashoka’s Rock Edicts in Nittur & Udegolan (both in Bellary district) suggest that this region was part of the Maurya Empireduring the 3rd century BC. A Brahmi inscription and a terracotta seal dating to the II century CE were also recovered from the excavation site.
The first settlements in Hampi date from 1 CE.
Immediately before the rise of the Vijayanagara kings, the region was probably in the hands of chiefs of Kampili, now a small town, 19 km east of Hampi.
Hampi was one of the best areas of the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire from 1343 to 1565, when it was besieged by the Deccan Muslim confederacy. Hampi was chosen because of its strategic location, bounded by the torrential Tungabhadra river on one side and surrounded by defensible hills on the other three sides.
The ruins of Hampi were surveyed in 1800 by Scottish Colonel Colin Mackenzie, first Surveyor General of India.
The site is significant historically and architecturally. The landscape abounds with large stones which have been used to make statues of Jaina deities. The Archaeological Survey of India continues to conduct excavations in the area.
The Islamic Quarter, sometimes called the Moorish Quarter, is located between the northern slope of the Malyavanta hill and the Talarigatta Gate. According to archaeologists, high-ranking Muslim officers of the king’s court and military officers lived in this area.